HEIDENHAIN updates its kit angle encoder line by modifying the ECA 4000 ring encoder to be able to survive and provide angular motion feedback within various machine types using a vacuum environment down to 10-7 mbar. Consideration was made during the development of the ECA 4000V with regard to epoxies and materials of the drum and scanning unit so as to limit the amount of residual gas in the vacuum chamber. The scanning units now have vents to allow air to escape, and a special tin-plated copper outer shield for cabling, with a 15-pin vacuum rated connector to plug into the firewall feedthrough. Both the drum and scanning unit are produced on a special clean production line and are baked out to +100°C for 48 hours before being put inside vacuum-compatible packaging with two layers, the outer layer being nitrogen flushed. Various drum diameters are available, from 70-mm inner diameter up to 512-mm inner diameter. Resolutions depend on drum size and range from 27 to 29 bits, with drum accuracies from ±1.5 arc seconds to ±3 arc seconds. The scanning heads are available with electrical interfaces such as ENDAT 2.2, Fanuc, Mitsubishi, and Panasonic.