3D X-ray Imager Provides Semiconductor Packaging Failure Analysis

To accelerate development and improve assembly yields, ZEISS offers a suite of high-resolution 3D X-ray imaging solutions for failure analysis (FA) of advanced semiconductor packages including 2.5/3D and fan-out wafer-level packages. The systems include the Xradia 600-series Versa and Xradia 800 Ultra X-ray microscopes (XRM) for submicron and nanoscale package FA, respectively, as well as the Xradia Context microCT.

 

The 3D X-ray imaging solutions provide submicron and nanoscale 3D images of features and defects buried within intact structures in advanced package 3D architectures. This is enabled by rotating a sample and capturing a series of 2D X-ray images from different perspectives, followed by reconstruction of 3D volumes using sophisticated mathematical models and algorithms. An unlimited number of virtual cross-sections of the 3D volume may be viewed from any angle – providing valuable insight of failure locations prior to physical failure analysis (PFA). The combination of submicron and nanoscale XRM solutions from ZEISS provides a unique FA workflow that can significantly enhance FA success rates. ZEISS's new Xradia Context microCT offers high contrast and resolution in a large field of view, using projection-based geometric magnification, and is fully upgradable to Xradia Versa.

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Xradia 600-series Versa is the next generation of 3D XRM for non-destructive imaging of localized defects within intact advanced semiconductor packages. It excels in structural and FA applications for process development, yield improvement and construction analysis. Based on the Versa platform with Resolution at a Distance (RaaD) capability, Xradia 600-series Versa offers high-resolution imaging of larger samples at long working distances to determine root causes of defects and failures in packages, circuit boards and 300 mm wafers. It can visualize defects associated with package-level failures, such as cracks in bumps or micro bumps, solder wetting problems or through silicon via (TSV) voids. The 3D visualization of defects prior to PFA reduces artifacts and guides cross-section orientations, leading to improved FA success rates. Features include:

  • 0.5-micron spatial resolution, 40 nm min voxel size
  • Up to 2x higher throughput than Xradia 500-series Versa, achieved while maintaining high resolution with excellent source spot-size stability and thermal management control across the full kV and power range
  • Improved ease of use, including fast-activation source control
  • Ability to observe submicron structural changes within a package successively imaged at multiple reliability test read points

 

Xradia 800 Ultra brings 3D XRM to the nanoscale realm, producing images of buried features with nanoscale spatial resolution while preserving the volume integrity of the region of interest. Applications include process analysis, construction analysis and defect analysis of ultra-fine-pitch flip chip and bump connections – enabling process improvement for ultra-fine-pitch package and back-end-of-line (BEOL) interconnects. Xradia 800 Ultra enables visualization of the texture and volume of solder consumed by intermetallic compounds in fine-pitch copper pillar micro bumps. Defect sites are preserved during imaging, enabling targeted follow-up analysis by a variety of techniques. The construction quality of blind assemblies, such as wafer-to-wafer bonded interconnect and direct hybrid bonding, can be characterized in 3D. Features include:

  • 150 nm and 50 nm spatial resolution (sample preparation is required)
  • Optional pico-second laser sample prep tool, enabling extraction of an intact volume sample (typically 100 microns in diameter) in under one hour
  • Compatibility with a wide range of options for follow-on analysis, including transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and nanoprobing 

Xradia Context microCT is a new submicron-resolution 3D X-ray microCT system based on the Versa platform. It is designed for high-resolution imaging of packages at short working distances with high throughput. Features include:

  • Large field of view for full-field imaging of large samples (10x greater volume compared to the Xradia Versa XRM system)
  • High-speed 6-megapixel detector with small pixel size maintains resolution at even relatively large fields of view
  • X-ray microCT with 0.95-micron spatial resolution, 0.5-micron min voxel size
  • Excellent image quality and contrast
  • Field convertible to Xradia Versa, enabling RaaD capability and high-resolution imaging of intact larger samples 

For more information, visit ZEISS,

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